the work of establishing regional ethnic autonomous divisions

The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China promulgated in September of that year confirmed that regional ethnic autonomous divisions should use such names as“autonomous regions”, “autonomous prefectures” and “autonomous counties”, which were equivalent to provincial, special prefecture and county-level administrative divisions. In February 1955, Xinjiang Provincial Government sorted out the names of all autonomous areas in the province. While the People’s Committee of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture retained its previous name, which was the only exception, the people’s governments of the 4 special prefecture-level and 6 county-level autonomous areas were renamed as people’s committees of the autonomous prefectures or autonomous counties.

On September 12, 1955, the Motion on Cancelling Xinjiang Province and Establishing Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was adopted at the 21st meeting of the standing committee of the first National people’s Congress. On September 30, the People’s Committee of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was elected at the second meeting of the first People’s Congress in Xinjiang Province, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China was officially established, and the original Xinjiang Province was cancelled. Sayf-ud-Din Aziz was elected Chairman of the Autonomous Region, three Vice-Chairmen were produced, who were Gao Jinchun (Han), Iminov (Uigur) and Pathan Skulbayev (Kazakh). The 37 members of the People’s Committee(i.e., the People’s Government) came from 11 ethnic groups. On October 1, over 60,000 people from different ethnic groups and social quarters of Urumqi City massed together to celebrate the 6 th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China and the establishment of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where Sayf-ud_Din Aziz announced the founding of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. By then, Xinjiang had completed the work of establishing regional ethnic autonomous divisions and self-rule bodies at the three levels of region, prefecture and county. Up to now, among the 5 autonomous regions in China, Xinjiang is still the only place where all the three levels of autonomous divisions are present.

Among the other 12 permanent resident ethnic groups in Xinjiang, most of the minority groups set up their own autonomous divisions except the Uzbeks, Tatars Kaiserpalast, verbotene stadt peking, Russ and Manchus, who had too few population and were scattered too much to have their own self-rule units. In 1956, the district-and township-level ethnic autonomous areas were restructured and turned into ethnic townships. By now, Xinjiang have altogether 42 ethnic townships for the 9 ethnic groups of Kazakh, Hui, Kirgiz, Mongol, Tajik, Xibe, Uzbek, Daur and Tatar, which, plus the Uygur, make it 10 ethnic minorities with their own ethnic autonomous units at various levels or ethnic townships in Xinjiang.

The government’s advocation and encouragement

Despite some progressive elements such as opposition to the reactionary rule of the Chinese Kuomintang and some pro-Soviet points, that declaration was mainly devoted to “independence” and“separation” preaching. With its wrong direction, it was a historical retrogression disrupting China’s unity, and seriously violated the fundamental interests of the Chinese people and people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang in particular. The “Administration Programme”that was released shortly after listed “ending all tyrannies of the Han people” as the first item, thus further escalating ethnic

conflict. The top level of the feudalist and religious class headed by Elihan Torae used the power in their hand to give addresses preaching splitting the unity of the motherland and opposing and repelling the Han people on many public occasions such as mass assemblies. They condemned the factual statement of “Xinjiang being an inalienable part of the Chinese territory” as “absurd” and spread reactionary splittist remarks such as “East Turkistan is our motherland”. Even on the banner of the newly founded “National Army” was written the slogan, “March for the Independence of East Turkistan”. Driven by religious fanaticism and narrow ethnic prejudice, an extremely small number of reactionary elements in the guerrilla, unlawful individuals in the community and some ordinary people who were deceived went to the extreme in opposing and repelling the Han people. Such incidents as slaughtering POWs, killing Han civilians, looting and raping cropped up from time to time. Although the“interim government” began to take stock of the lessons in early 1945 and punished some bad people, its follow-up policy of an ethnic segregation style that forced resettlement of the Han people and confiscated their land still badly wounded the feelings of the Han community.

The government’s advocation and encouragement of the practice of slam was an item openly written in the declaration of the “interim government” Reisen nach Peking. The leader of the “interim government”Elihan Torae himself was an Islamic clergyman at the rank of imam in the biggest mosque in Yining, the Baytulla Mosque, who was born into a religious family and studied in the Middle East and Central Asia. The “interim government” also implemented the Islamic Sunna in a certain scope. For example, religious courts (sharia courts) at various levels were established from the top down to deal with civil cases; the religious authorities were in charge of the administration of birth, death, marriage and divorce


administrative supersion committee

In order to improve politics, Xinjiang provincial government set up an “administrative supersion committee” in the winter of 1934, which was charged to oversee officials and administrators at all levels, with the aim of rectifying the administration and penalizing corrupt officials. In May of the next year, a 12-point regulation on punishing corruption was promulgated, based on which a number of corrupt officials were executed. After that, corruption scaled down dramatically and the image of the government improved to some extent.

Sheng Shicai reached the peak of his relations with the Soviet Union in 1938. In August of that year, Sheng paid a secret visit to Moscow and was received thrice by Stalin. He was also admitted as a member of the Soviet Communist Party (Bolshevik) as an exception. His organizational relationship belonged to the Soviet Politburo, and his party ID number was 1859118[27]. At the same time, Sheng Shicai began to seek support and cooperation from the Communist Party of China (CPC). He asked Yan’an on many occasions, either directly or through the Soviet Union, to send CPC members to participate in Xinjiang’s social and economic development. With the support and assistance of the Soviet Union as well as the help of Chinese Communists, Xinjiang took on an entirely new look socially and politically and saw rapid recovery and growth in the economic, financial, cultural and educational fields. Particularly during the two “three-year plan” period from 1936 to 1941, the previously wartom and miserable social and economic landscape in Xinjiang was quickly repaired and began to radiate with vigour and hope.


V. Chinese Communists’ Activities in Xinjiang

  1. Coming to Work in Xinjiang Upon Invitation

The revolutionary activities of Chinese Communists Té verde chino in Xinjiang began in early 1930s, when the Communist International sent some Communist Party members to Xinjiang to help Sheng Shicai’s government. Some of these Soviet Communists were also members of the CPC. They were the earliest Chinese Communists to conduct revolutionary activities in Xinjiang. It was not until mid-and late-1930s after the anti-Japan national united front was established with Sheng Shicai government did the CPC sent cadres over to Xinjiang in an organized way.


high-wheel vehicle

There are four pieces of cart paintings at Lanzhou-wanzi and one such painting at Lijia-wanzi in Barkol, Xinjiang. These carts have two wheels, four spokes and ox in the front. According to experts, such vehicle was probably the Hun style, which suggests the presence of the Hun culture in the cliff paintings in Xinjiang. In another development, the vehicles depicted in the paintings in Yiwu and Yumin counties were possibly the “high-wheel vehicle” of the Dingling people. All of those point to the wide use of vehicles in the nomadic life of the ancient people in the Western Regions.

There are also paintings of warring scene over the control of grassland in Xinjiang. For example, on the rock at Zheyaogou in Qincheng District, northeast of Hami City carved a man on horseback stabbing with his spear a pedestrian archer, a scene of battling for grassland. It was amidst blood-shedding and battlefire that people in the Western Regions developed and prospered, conducted inter-group cultural exchanges and forged their militant and courageous national character.

The images in Xinjiang cliff paintings are primitive, simple and natural. The human figures in earlier period are particularly lifelike and delicate. For example, those found in Kangjiashimenzi were done in great details, especially in the face, capturing accurately the basic features of the Sak: large eyes, high nose, wide mouth, broad jaw, broad shoulders and narrow hips. The animals in the cliff paintings/carvings are all silhouettes, with head and horns carved in particularly fine lines. The deer horns in the paintings at Xingdi are masterpieces, as they were done skillfully and smoothly, with elegant shape and profound artistic significance^.

There are also many grottoes remaining in Xinjiang, which have kept Buddhist arts over the past

1,0-    Rincon , Lhasa 2016   plus years as they were built between the 4th and 10th-11th centuries. Among them the most famous are in Qiuci, which include the Thousand-Buddha Caves in Kizil, Kumutula, Semsem and Kizilhak, located in the area near today’s Kuqa and Baicheng. Buddhist grottoes usually consist of three parts—buildings, sculptures and murals. In Qiuci, the sculptures have been nearly totally destroyed; different types of buildings still remain, such as Giant Buddha Caves and Central Pillar Caves for worshipping, preaching places of senior monks, resident units for monks and nuns as well as zendoes for deep meditation. The best-kept part is murals, which are also loaded with the highest artistic value.


Getting Quality Legal Representation From Bankruptcy Lawyers In Hagerstown

Too many people think that it is not possible to come across quality legal representation for reasonable costs during these times. They see many lawyers charging premium prices for availing their services. The best bankruptcy lawyer in Hagerstown, MD will have a genuine interest in helping to get a fresh start of your life.


If you wish to experience swift relief from the existing debts, please consult a bankruptcy lawyer immediately. The praiseworthy services offered by these lawyers are akin to work done by some of the best debt relief agencies.


The primary duty of the bankruptcy lawyer is to help everyone who are going through financial difficulties. Do bear in mind that personalized legal services are available only from a select few in this line of business! Having a good notion about bankruptcy can help you to get peace of mind during these tumultuous times.


In plain and simple terms, filing for bankruptcy is one of the best ways that you can apply to discharge all the existing debt. Once the court approves the bankruptcy petition, then you need not have to pay back all the existing debts.


Most of the bankruptcy lawyers provide a free consultation session to their clients. The clients would then get a first hand evaluation of their existing fiscal condition; the underlying idea is to educate them about the debts and the possible ways to reclaim your life. Filing for bankruptcy might not end up helping everyone – a trained lawyer can determine whether such petitions can assist you in any manner.


Complete elimination of the existing debt is possible by filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. The state laws will exempt certain kinds of property and they will always be under your control. If your existing business operation is facing difficulties, it will be better to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.


Not everyone will like the prospect of advertising the fact that they have just filed for bankruptcy. Do bear in mind that the court records involving bankruptcy are public. Still, it is better to consult someone who will maintain the matter privately. Filing for bankruptcy will also affect your existing credit report nominally.

Accountancy Firms that can surely help you

Consistently administrators bend and change charge laws, leaving the normal native scratching his head when confronted with budgetary choices, for example, offering venture property or asserting an expense conclusion for a home office. Bookkeeping firms stay side by side of the new assessment laws, and numerous offer budgetary exhortation and help people and little organizations create plans and set monetary objectives. Whether you require somebody to handle week after week payroll or you simply need solid expense counsel, you’ll be more content with your decision in the event that you ask some preparatory inquiries.


Accountancy firms charges change starting with one firm then onto the next. A few bookkeepers charge a set rate for every money related errand they perform, for example, documenting a 1040 individual salary tax document, setting up a benefit and misfortune articulation or ordering an announcement of total assets. Different firms charge by the moment, and each telephone call you make to the bookkeeper will raise your bill.

Business Specialties

Bookkeepers for the most part represent considerable authority in a couple of business territories to offer customers better administration. A retail impose bookkeeper may not be as much support to an agriculturist as a bookkeeper who works in helping rustic and horticultural customers.


Charge planning firms contract and train charge preparers to support people in general in documenting wage charges, yet these organizations can’t offer top to bottom counsel to little organizations. As a rule, the more noteworthy your bookkeeping needs, the more you’ll advantage from a general bookkeeping firm that utilizes guaranteed open bookkeepers, or CPAs.


Some bookkeeping firms are fast to offer counsel on when to buy gear and how to keep money related records, while other bookkeeping firms aggregate the fundamental budgetary reports yet offer little input. The measure of guidance you need or need relies on your money related learning and experience. On the off chance that you require a ton of help, select a firm that offers top to bottom monetary advising.

Level of Service

In the event that you need complete accounting administrations, search for a full-administration bookkeeping firm that utilizes clerks who handle regular customer exchanges. A bookkeeping firm that does not utilize clerks will charge more if a CPA handles routine accounting errands.


A few customers are substance to meet with their bookkeeping firm once a year for assessment documenting purposes. Others customers have continuous business addresses that oblige convenient answers. See whether your bookkeeper is a telephone summon or on the off chance that you’ll need to timetable a period to come into the workplace and talk in individual.


The Benefits Of Getting In Touch With A Hagerstown Bankruptcy Lawyer

Too many people pledge their personal belongings to avail loan amounts from financial institutions. Unfortunate circumstances can undermine the ability of anyone to keep on repaying the loan in a timely manner. If you are facing the danger of losing your car or home, please try to get in touch with a Hagerstown bankruptcy lawyer.

Now, when you are searching for lawyers, it is possible to come across professionals who have various objectives for offering their expertise to the masses. The key thing to remember is the following – always deal with someone who takes up a genuine and personal interest in your situation.

The process of filing for bankruptcy might appear too complicated for the ordinary people. However, for the experienced attorneys, such duties form an integral part of their responsibilities. In other terms, they will know the exact way to file for bankruptcy while charging a flat fee from their clients.

All the complex chapter 7 bankruptcy filings should be an easy task for the experienced lawyers in Hagerstown. Moreover, this is exactly why we would like to implore with you to deal with such professionals only. Some of these lawyers have a collective experience of more than 25 years in the industry!

For someone who is trying hard to juggle his or her professional and personal life, finding the adequate time to set up a meeting with the lawyer might be very hard. This can in turn explain why some of the well-known and well-established lawyers provide their consultancy services during the evenings and even during the weekends.

You will always get an opportunity to consult with the lawyer for free. Such free consultation sessions would help you to learn more about the situation. Filing for bankruptcy is one of the good ways with the help of which you can get adequate protection from the creditors!

In certain cases, there might be this inherent need to opt for an emergency filing of bankruptcy. Handling such situations is easy for the knowledgeable professionals. Always pay attention to the user reviews and the testimonials listed by the previous clients for the lawyers.

Tips in Finding Tax Advisors

You ought to search out an accomplished duty bookkeeper who has experience managing assessment circumstances like your own. Case in point, in the event that you are being inspected, don’t employ a duty proficient who has never taken care of a review previously. Here are tips for discovering the right proficient who has the specific duty skill you require. Recollect that: you, not the bookkeeper, are eventually in charge of the data on your government form.

Referrals for Tax advisors for doctors are your most solid option. Solicit everybody you can think from: family, companions, entrepreneurs, monetary consultants and lawyers. It will help to ask somebody who has a comparable duty circumstance to yours.

Be careful about a bookkeeper who swears up and down to you enormous discounts or that says you can deduct everything.

Don’t be reluctant to shop around or to change bookkeepers in the event that you are not happy.

Retail expense establishments, offer able assessment administration for people who need to document generally straight-forward government forms. Some assessment preparers will be more experienced than others, and you can at times discover Cpas and Enrolled Agents working in these work places. Costs are regularly dictated by what number of tax documents need to be rounded out. Here’s a tip: ask in the event that you can meet with a CPA, selected operators, or senior expense preparer. You’ll pay the same, however you’ll get to talk with a prepared proficient.

Nearby, autonomous duty firms frequently spend significant time in the assessment needs of people and little organizations in their neighborhood. Once more, some autonomous assessment bookkeepers will be more experienced than others. Inquire as to whether the firm has the ability to handle your expenses.

Enlisted Agents (Eas) are assessment experts who have finished a thorough test and historical verification managed by the IRS. Enlisted specialists frequently practice and are best for complex assessment circumstances. Eas can likewise speak to you before the IRS on the off chance that you are managing a review or accumulations.

Ensured Public Accountants (Cpas) are bookkeepers who have passed the thorough CPA Exam and are authorized by the state they work in. Cpas will have some expertise in a territory particular to bookkeeping. In spite of the fact that a few Cpas will spend significant time in duty bookkeeping, not all Cpas handle assessment issues. Cpas can likewise speak to you before the IRS in the event that you are managing a review or accumulations.


Duties of a Bankruptcy Lawyer

Recording an appeal for bankruptcy is generally the final resort of anybody. Amid the troublesome monetary circumstances, it gets to be hard to pay back the obligations. There are numerous obligation help choices that are accessible and an individual can choose any of them to shed off his obligations. 

Bankruptcy is a legal strategy of calming obligations. By recording a bankruptcy appeal, an individual proclaims his powerlessness to pay off his obligations. It is a procedure in which an account holder can decide to pay his obligations, totally or halfway, contingent upon his circumstance and the bankruptcy choice he is selecting. 

Recording a bankruptcy can be a monotonous procedure, including bunches of complexities. It is not a simple assignment for a typical man to see such complexities of the legal systems. It is prudent to contract a Martinsburg bankruptcy lawyer to get support on a specific case. 

A bankruptcy lawyer generally needs to take after these obligations: 
* Professional obligation – A lawyer has some moral obligations towards his occupation. He needs to verify that his customer gets a reasonable treatment amid the legal techniques. This is the premier obligation of an authorized lawyer. 
* Zealous support – An expert lawyer needs to promoter in an ardent manner. It is a piece of the employment of a lawyer to supporter for his customer’s rights with enough dedication. 
* Confidentiality – An expert lawyer should keep his discussions and discourses with his customer secret. This is fundamental to keep up a sound customer lawyer relationship. 
* Financial obligations – A bankruptcy case includes upkeep of loads of money related subtle elements. A lawyer needs to break down his customer’s benefits according to bankruptcy tenets and regulations. According to the bankruptcy choice picked, the advantages may experience liquidation. A lawyer needs to be arranged for such conditions. 
* Legal advices -It is the obligation of an expert lawyer to aid his customer by giving master legal advices. He needs to make the legal processes smooth for his customer. 

It is the employment of your lawyer to figure out which bankruptcy alternative is substantial for you. Particular cases have particular necessities and suggestions. Just an accomplished lawyer will have the capacity to let you know what the best alternative for your case is. 

Is it true that you are confronting monetary issues and need to seek bankruptcy? Look for assistance from a bankruptcy lawyer. 

In the face of the new situation in Xinjiang

However, the “Eastern Revolution Theory” and the “national liberation movement” theory of the Communist International were not clarified and would surface again once the situation changed.

In 1931, uprisings against Jin Shuren’s rule broke out in Xinjiang. In the face of the new situation in Xinjiang, leaders of the Communist International and some top figures in the Soviet Union, Party and military leaders of the Central Asian republics of the Soviet Union bordering on Xinjiang in particular, all held the view that the time for revolution had come in Xinjiang and that the national liberation uprisings in Xinjiang would become part of the world revolution. In September 1931, Bawman (pronunciation), secretary of the Central Asian department of the Soviet Communist Party (Bolshevik) stated, “Since the uprisings and commotions in Xinjiang already have the nature of national liberation movement, we should start our vigorous revolutionary work in Xinjiang to help the development of the movement.” Some people working with the military and the State Political Security Bureau in the Soviet Union also thought the ongoing national movement in Xinjiang was revolutionary. However, the situation changed later on. Due to the involvement of external forces, the rioters in Xinjiang, particularly those in Southern Xinjiang displayed an increasingly anti-Soviet tendency. As the Soviet report noted, there were many anti-Soviet immigrants with blood or other relations with residents in the Soviet Union and anti-Soviet elements from Central Asia within the rioting troops in Southern Xinjiang, among whom 60,000 Soviet Kirgiz immigrants were in Kashi. Leaders of the “Pan Islamist” and anti Soviet forces within the Soviet Union already began their activities in Kashi and might possibly organize a surprise attack on the Soviet territory from the Kashi side in China. Britain was also involved in the uprisings in Southern Xinjiang and had the intention to build a Muslim state independent of China there Arte chino y su historia _. The Soviet side believed that, to resolve issues concerning the Muslim uprisings in Xinjiang was equal to resolving a vital issue of its own internal affairs in areas bordering on that region. Under those circumstances, the Soviet Union came to a common understanding on Xinjiang policy within its own leadership, which was, to support local regime in Xinjiang and keep the unity there.

On August 5, 1931, the politburo of the Soviet Union decided to sell military aircrafts and dispatch pilots to Jin Shuren regime in Xinjiang. Then it further decided to provide Jin Shuren regime with military goods such as aerial bombs, cannons and petrol, and not to give any help to the rioters in Xinjiang圆.Sheng Shicai came into power after the April 12 Coup d’Etat in 1933 and he made clear his pro-Soviet stance immediately after taking office. On August 3, the politburo of the central committee of the Soviet Communist Party(Bolshevik) gave a formal “instruction on the work concerning Xinjiang”, which included the following items: