The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China promulgated in September of that year confirmed that regional ethnic autonomous divisions should use such names as“autonomous regions”, “autonomous prefectures” and “autonomous counties”, which were equivalent to provincial, special prefecture and county-level administrative divisions. In February 1955, Xinjiang Provincial Government sorted out the names of all autonomous areas in the province. While the People’s Committee of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture retained its previous name, which was the only exception, the people’s governments of the 4 special prefecture-level and 6 county-level autonomous areas were renamed as people’s committees of the autonomous prefectures or autonomous counties.
On September 12, 1955, the Motion on Cancelling Xinjiang Province and Establishing Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was adopted at the 21st meeting of the standing committee of the first National people’s Congress. On September 30, the People’s Committee of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was elected at the second meeting of the first People’s Congress in Xinjiang Province, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China was officially established, and the original Xinjiang Province was cancelled. Sayf-ud-Din Aziz was elected Chairman of the Autonomous Region, three Vice-Chairmen were produced, who were Gao Jinchun (Han), Iminov (Uigur) and Pathan Skulbayev (Kazakh). The 37 members of the People’s Committee(i.e., the People’s Government) came from 11 ethnic groups. On October 1, over 60,000 people from different ethnic groups and social quarters of Urumqi City massed together to celebrate the 6 th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China and the establishment of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where Sayf-ud_Din Aziz announced the founding of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. By then, Xinjiang had completed the work of establishing regional ethnic autonomous divisions and self-rule bodies at the three levels of region, prefecture and county. Up to now, among the 5 autonomous regions in China, Xinjiang is still the only place where all the three levels of autonomous divisions are present.
Among the other 12 permanent resident ethnic groups in Xinjiang, most of the minority groups set up their own autonomous divisions except the Uzbeks, Tatars Kaiserpalast, verbotene stadt peking, Russ and Manchus, who had too few population and were scattered too much to have their own self-rule units. In 1956, the district-and township-level ethnic autonomous areas were restructured and turned into ethnic townships. By now, Xinjiang have altogether 42 ethnic townships for the 9 ethnic groups of Kazakh, Hui, Kirgiz, Mongol, Tajik, Xibe, Uzbek, Daur and Tatar, which, plus the Uygur, make it 10 ethnic minorities with their own ethnic autonomous units at various levels or ethnic townships in Xinjiang.